监控与反监控技术的基本知识

真相网2019.1.12】监控与反监控技术的基本知识

一、过去监控以窃听和跟踪监视为主

现代监控技术开始于美国与苏联之间的冷战。开始主要是政府用窃听器,再结合电波传递信息。平时可能想不到的有这样几种可能的做法:第一、窃听器可以小到象一个纽扣,可以放在不显眼的地方。比如,放在一把螺丝刀的把手里面。第二、可以不用换电池,长期使用。可能象现在新出的手机无线充电。第三、也可以不在目标附近放窃听器,远远的用高灵敏度的仪器听。人说话的时候,周围的物体都会振动。特别是窗户玻璃振动可以从很远的地方发射人眼看不到的光,探测到振动,用仪器分析以后,就象耳朵贴在窗户上听一样。另外,水管子,下水道管子,都会把声音传的很远。

对于这些传统的窃听方式,可能采取的措施有:礼物中可能会有问题;可能被对方知道的地点都可能有问题。如果是自己家里,首先要加厚窗帘,然后最简单的办法是加背景声音,比如说,把电视声音开大。

传统的监控摄像比窃听要难一些,主要是因为摄像头必须能够看到被监控目标。跟踪拍照是传统监视的主要手段。

二、当代手机和电脑是最常用监听监视工具

最近二、三十年信息技术的发展,一方面,政府和大公司的收集个人信息能力大大加强,另一方面,技术门槛也越来越低。

在美国,有法律和舆论制约政府、企业和个人。在中国,中共一直在用多种技术手段对民众进行监控。

电话公司会记录通话时间、时长。一旦盯上一个人,可以录下一个人的所有通话内容。也可以用电脑把电话声音转成文字,分析,再选出一小部分人工分析。

现在的电脑、智能手机和网络大大提高了对个人的监控能力。

原来困难的监视摄像头现在联上网络,安的到处都是。手机通话会广播出去,用专门仪器,很容易窃听。

智能手机随身带,通过导航(GPS),手机信号都可以定位。存放在手机上的信息,往往会有众多的应用收集。

多数网站和手机应用,都会和广告商合作,收集用户信息。然后通过大数据分析,广告商对一个人的了解程度,很多时候会超过他的亲人甚至本人。然后结合通讯录上的名单,和电话记录,广告商可以了解一个人的社交圈。对社交圈中的其他人,也可以推断出很多信息。然后广告商和服务商会推出更吸引人的服务,实际上也是加强了对人的控制,让人越来越依赖于这些技术,越来越愿意主动把自己个人和朋友的信息提供(泄露)出去。

在中国,这些广告商、服务商都可能和中共合作、监控个人。所以购买电脑、手机,如能尽量避免中国的品牌、避免用国产软件,可以帮助避免个人信息方便的落到中共手里。手机上的应用软件(APP),尽量少装,因为这些应用往往会在安装的时候,要求很多权限。最常见的要求,如通讯录、通话记录、无线上网信息、GPS定位、话筒、摄像头。然后这个应用软件就可以利用做监听、监视了。在这场迫害中,作为法轮功学员,通讯软件和服务也要避免用国产的。

三、国外软件并非绝对安全

美国的软件产品情况要复杂一些。大企业收集个人信息会有加密处理,然后一般会存在美国的机器上,受到美国法律的保护和监管。这些信息中共很难拿到。但是,也不是绝对安全。比如,这些年出现的一些特例,都是美国公司和中国公司合作,或者把服务器放在中国,或者是在中国有分部,然后借口要符合当地的法律,给中共提供用户信息或都配合中共过滤信息。

受到媒体关注的事件有:

SKYPE通过中国公司出特制版本。雅虎中国向中共提供异见人士信息。谷歌中国曾经在中国提供搜索服务,会过滤搜索结果。谷歌新闻从中国访问,也会过滤结果。苹果公司下架VPN软件。苹果公司把中国用户放在iCloud上的信息转到中国内地的服务器,也就是说,中共的执法部门可以去索要服务器上的任何个人信息。谷歌正在进行“蜻蜓计划”,想再次推出过滤版(中国版)的搜索应用。

现在知道的大公司都是既不想失去现有用户的信任,又想迎合中共来换取进入中国市场,采取的做法都是把针对中国的业务分离出来,把相关的服务器和工作人员放在中国,和其公司在海外的主体业务切割开来。

所以如果知道使用的服务是美国大公司针对多数用户提供的,一般性的使用是可以信任的。但是更敏感和机密的事情还是不能保证这些公司的员工不会看。

四、使用VPN翻墙也非绝对安全

所有的VPN服务商都可以看到用户网络地址和要访问的网站。国内的服务商,都可能会把这些信息交给中共。

五、网上身份信息难保安全

身份信息一旦上网后就很难保证信息安全。不但会被各家收集、广为流传,而且还可能被用于冒名欺诈。

网上欺诈、电话欺诈的最主要方式就是假冒他人。如果是电话,不仅能够看到来电号码,还能听到对方的声音,以此确认通话对像,要好得多。但是,面对中共用一个政府的力量来对付个人,即使面对面看到,也不能保证原来的朋友现在不是在被胁迫做事。网上只凭用户名和文字,那就很容易出现被冒名的情况。

English Version: http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2018/12/25/173757.html

Overview of Phone and Internet Surveillance
December 25, 2018

(Minghui.org) The Chinese communist regime has used many methods to persecute Falun Gong practitioners, including hate propaganda and violence. Most importantly it is quite active in bugging phones, cellular phone tracking, and video surveillance.

For example, after banners with the words “Falun Dafa is good” were found in January 2017 in Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, police tracked down practitioners by using video surveillance, phone tapping, location tracking, and vehicle monitoring. This led to the arrests of at least five practitioners, four of whom were illegally sentenced to prison several months ago.

It is important to understand some basic information concerning surveillance and counter surveillance.
Conventional Surveillance

The modern surveillance technology got its start during the cold war several decades ago. Government agencies collected information through detectaphones, which transmitted information through electronic waves. Several methods were used to make such devices undetectable.

The first one was a small, button-sized device which was easy to conceal, and could easily fit into a screwdriver handle. Second, the device had an extended battery life, so it could be used for a long time. It could also be made to resemble a common wireless cellphone charger. Third, instead of placing a detectaphone in proximity of the target, a highly-sensitive device could be used from far away. This is possible because, as one speaks, the surroundings, including windows, vibrate in certain ways reflecting the sounds within. Once such signals are collected and analyzed, they could be played back as if you were placing your ear against the window to listen. Water and sewer pipes can also send sound waves over long distances and can be used for serveillance.

There are several ways to deal with these methods. Examples include being cautious about receiving gifts from suspect people, being careful in locations that are already known to suspect people. One way to prevent home surveillance is to have heavy window curtains; another is to have background noise such as television audio.

Videotaping in conventional ways is more challenging because a video camera needs to be aimed at the target. Following and taking photos or videos are also options used for surveillance.
Cellphones and Computers

With the development of information technology over the past 20 or 30 years, government agencies and large companies have developed more powerful tools to collect personal information. At the same time, the technology required to achieve this has become increasingly accessible.

Governments, companies, and individuals often refrain from abusing these tools outside of China, because of laws and public opinion. However, these technologies are widely exploited by the communist regime to suppress people in China.

Telephone company records include phone numbers, call times, and length of conversations. Once a target is identified, all the conversations can be converted to text through software, followed by filtering, and analysis by a human.

Contemporary computers, smart phones, and Internet have simplified tracking down individuals. Video recording devices are now seen in many places, and cellular phone conversations can be easily obtained through backdoor software, transmitted remotely, then analyzed.

Since many people keep a cell phone on hand at all times, the GPS function allows surveillance operatives to locate this person. Numerous apps may also collect information from phones and send it to remote servers.

Many websites and cell phone application vendors cooperate with advertising agencies to collect user information. Through powerful information analysis, the advertising agencies may know more about a person than family members or even the person him-or-herself. When combined with contact lists and phone records, the advertising agency can construct a social profile of this individual, and based on this, generate more information. Many apps may seem user friendly, but their convenience may indicate that much information about a person and their circle of friends is collected without notice.

Inside China, these advertising agencies and vendors can profile individuals for the Communist Party. It is thus better to avoid computers or cell phones made in China, and even software developed in China. The surveillance potential can be minimized if phone users install fewer apps, as many apps request permission to access one’s contact list, phone log, wifi information, GPS location, microphone, and camera. These tools can enable the cell phone or computer to be used as a powerful surveillance device.

Therefore, due to the persecution we recommend that Falun Gong practitioners avoid communication software or services provided from China.
Software Outside China

Software provided from elsewhere, including the United States, is somewhat different. The information is often encrypted and stored in the U.S., where it is subject to protection and regulation by relevant laws. Generally, the Chinese government has no access to such information, but there are exceptions. In some incidents during the past years, some American companies have cooperated with Chinese firms, and store information for some users on servers in China. In the name of complying with Chinese laws, these business partners in China may provide related information to the communist regime.

Such cases have been reported by the news media. For example, Skype produced a special version for China, Yahoo China provided information on dissidents to the communist regime, Google used to filter search results when it had operations in China, Apple removed some VPN apps from its App Store, and it stored Chinese users' iCloud information on servers in China. Therefore, law enforcement agencies in China could request information for these individuals. To make things worse, Google has been reportedly developing a search engine tailored for China in a project named Dragonfly.

Large companies usually do not want to lose current customers. Meanwhile, they want to make profits in the Chinese market. As a compromise, they may separate services in China from core businesses overseas, but it cannot guarantee confidentiality, nor can it be guaranteed that highly-sensitive information is not being leaked.
VPN Tools

Many VPN tools are available both inside and outside of China. Since the VPN vendors have stored the IP addresses and sites users visit, information collected inside China is vulnerable because it could be turned over to the communist regime upon request.
Fraudulence and Identity Theft

Once a person's information is online, it may be collected by many parties and shared among them. It could make people victims of fraudulent activities and identity theft.

Many types of fraudulent activities and identity theft are common. Relatively speaking, fraudulent phone activities are easier to identify since it involves both a phone number and voice. But inside China, under its totalitarian communist regime, people may be forced to do things against their will when under pressure. Fraudulent activities on the Internet, however, are much more common and one should be even more careful in this arena.

转载自明慧网

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