石川:中国贫富差距真的比美国低吗?

真相网2020.9.29】7月14日,中国人权研究会发表了《贫富分化导致美国人权问题日益严重》的文章,称美国基尼系数已经达到0.482,远远超出0.4的国际警戒线,贫富差距严重,有4000万人生活在贫困中。严重的疫情将加剧不平等,近半数美国家庭将难以维持基本生活,低收入者将面临饥饿的威胁。

这样的描述让很多不能翻墙的中国人误以为:美国人正处于水深火热之中,而前不久大家还从视频中看到,美国社区向市民免费派发食物及日用品,排队的人并不很多,秩序井然。

石川:中国贫富差距真的比美国低吗?

不可否认,美国的贫富差距确实在扩大,基尼系数比2007年的0.46有所扩大。但是,美国疫情再严重,经济再衰落,仍然是世界发达国家。2018年,全球人均GDP为1.146万美元,中国还不到1万美元,而美国是6万美元。

我们看一看美国的贫困标准,2011年,美国发布的贫困线标准是一个四口之家一年收入为22350美元,平均每人465美元/月。而中共制定的贫困线标准是人均收入一年为2300元以下,平均每月不到200元人民币,两个标准根本不具有比较意义。

李克强在中共“两会”闭幕时刚谈到,中国还有6亿人月收入千元左右。北京师范大学中国收入分配研究院的调查与此高度吻合,并显示月收入低于500元的有2.2亿人,这意味着,GDP总量位居世界第二的中国,还有2.2亿人日均收入不到3美元。作为一个低收入群体占一半的国家,中共还是应该先正视一下自己的贫困问题。

超乎想象的贫困

今年是中共号称全面小康的“收官”之年,原本预计明年要完成脱贫,但是李克强披露的数字却揭开了“伟光正”的面纱。

2019年北京师范大学中国收入分配研究院对7万个样本进行抽样调查,结果显示,14亿中国人中,月收入(指扣除个税和社保后的可支配收入)上万的只有854万人,占0.61%;5000至1万的占4.52%,也就是说,大约95%的人月收入低于5000元,其中,43%的人即大约6亿人低于1090元。

这6亿人,75%分布在农村,其中70%分布在中西部。6亿人中,甚至还有2.2亿人月收入低于500元,这些数字说明,中国还是一个低收入群体为主的国家,而且比重超乎想象。

而我们之前看到的统计数字却是,2019年,中国城乡居民人均可支配收入为3万元,显然,这只是一个统计数字,并存在这样一个“平均”的群体,财富被利益群体占有,而底层则处于外界难以看到的贫困之中。

被缩小的基尼系数

基尼系数是国际上常用的衡量贫富差距的指标,接近0,表明收入分配趋于平等,越高差距越大,通常将0.2以下视为绝对平均主义,中国六七十年代就是这个水平。0.4-0.5为贫富差距较大,0.5以上为收入悬殊。

1978年,中国改革开放时,基尼系数约为0.3,1994年之后超过0.4,2002年之后就没再公布过该数字。一些官方研究机构都认为,中国当时已经超过了0.5的警戒线,所以才不公布。

但国内国外的研究机构却在不断地公布相关研究成果,联合国估算的数据被中国媒体广泛引用:2010年中国的基尼系数预期突破0.52,世界第4;2011年将突破0.55,仍居第四。在联合国的190多个国家当中,有完整的统计数据的国家约有150个国家,其中基尼系数超过0.49的不到10个,排名前十的除了中国外,全部是非洲和拉丁美洲的国家。中国的基尼系数位于全球倒数第四位,只是比南非三个全球最贫穷的国家要好一点。

2012年9月14日,中共公布的首部《社会管理蓝皮书中国社会管理创新报告》承认,中国贫富差距已逼近社会容忍线。

2012年12月,中国人民银行与西南财经大学共同创立的中国家庭金融调查与研究中心发布的《中国收入不均报告》更是让人震惊。报告称,2010年中国的基尼系数高达0.61,大大高于0.44的全球平均水平,不仅是亚太第一高,也是全球第七严重。这一数字立即引起轩然大波,也迫使国家统计局不得不披露数字。

2013年1月18日,国家统计局首次公布了2003年至2012年中国社会收入分配基尼系数,十年间,中国的基尼系数在0.47到0.49之间,2008年最高,达到0.491,其后却逐年回落,2012年为0.474。时任国家统计局局长马建堂也承认,数据显示中国存在收入分配不公平问题,有必要加快收入分配改革、缩小收入差距。

但外界普遍认为,这些数字并不真实。首先,数字的回落就令人生疑。美国2009年的基尼系数都达到0.468,中国的基尼系数只有0.47?

一位国内著名的经济学家在他的微博称,最新的贫穷指标是“假数据”,他还说:“这个基尼数字,即使童话的作者都不敢这么写。”

众所周知,美国官员的财产公开,而中国一直不敢公开,如果将“暗收入”、“灰色收入”、“非法收入”以及寻租收入考虑进去,贫富差距将更大。有学者称,中国基尼系数将上升为0.67。

钱还能用吨来衡量!

2014年,原国家能源局副局长魏鹏远在一处房中藏了2亿现金,银行调去16台点钞机,烧坏了4台,震惊了网民。人们好奇地计算:2亿元现金到底能码成多大一张床?而被称为“亿级财神爷”的赖小民,更是挑战了中国人民的想象力。

原中国华融资产管理公司董事长赖小民,涉案金额十多亿,仅藏匿的现金就有3吨,价值2.7亿元,人们没有想到,钱还能用吨来衡量!

赖小民仅是国企金融机构的高官,真正的中共高官及太子党们的贪腐程度更为惊人。统计显示,中共“十八大”之后被查出的亿元贪官已有46人,其中受贿金额最高的是原内蒙古政法委书记邢云,受贿4.49亿元。大官巨贪,小官大贪,他们的隐匿财富超出想象。

而财富集中在党政官员手中,并非反腐之后才显露出来的,以前一直如此。2012年5月中国官方公布的一个数据可做参考:中国30年来共有420万党政人员涉及腐败,其中有90名省部官员被查处。

据香港《争鸣》杂志2015年10月号报导,9月上旬,中共一份调研报告,列出了社会上千万资金财产阶层及其比例和资产的主要来源等。在31个省自治区直辖市中,拥有千万以上资金、财产的有548万至560万人及家庭,其中,在职和已退休中共党政官员占360万至365万,占比65%以上。

连中共都承认中共“官员及家属的不正常暴富”。中共官员不仅拥有庞大资产,他们的子女也多获肥差。一份报告显示,中国七个省市的厅局级干部的子女,87%-95%在金融、地产或经贸等国家机构工作。

2002年全国工资总额约1.2万亿,然而当年居民储蓄却增长了1.5万亿,大大超过全国工资总额。这表明巨额财富以非工资方式集中在少数富人手中。因为普通老百姓除工薪外极难有其它收入,只有贪官污吏才有非法收入、灰色收入。

报告显示,131万县团级以上干部及其家属占有全民财富的70%。至2002年6月底,全国个人储蓄存款7万5千2百亿元,其中县、团、处级或以上干部及其家属申报的个人储蓄高于4万亿元。

2005年11月一个月内,中共各级官员的家属抢购黄金金条、金币及99%含量的黄金饰物的重量达50吨。广东、福建、浙江、江苏、山东、上海、重庆五省二市的厅(局)级或以上干部及其家属,2005年已有98%的人拥有超过1000万元的财产。

2006年4月初,国务院研究室、中纪委办、中国社会科学院发布《全国地方党政部门、国家机关公职人员薪酬和家庭财产调查报告》披露:中共官僚特权阶层年收入是当地城市人均收入的8~25倍,是当地农民年均收入的25~85倍。

2007年深圳市城市人均年收入是32650元,地厅级高干财产在700万至1000万,省级高干财产在850万至 1200万。深圳市地厅级干部的平均财产相当于一个普通市民250年的工资,省级干部财产相当于一个普通市民 300年的工资。

这让我们看到,中国的财富都集中到哪里,这也是中国与美国贫富差距的本质不同。即使美国0.1%的人拥有的资产接近底层90%人的资产总和,但美国的有钱阶层多是靠两条致富:一是自己创业,二是继承遗产,而且前者居多。而中共官员则是靠权钱交易暴富,损害社会公平,败坏社会道德。

不仅如此,中共官员还享受着特殊待遇。比如,中国每年上千亿公共医疗卫生支出中,80%都花在了党政干部身上。2006年,中央政府投入公共卫生经费1190亿元,其中的952亿元,用在了850万党政干部身上,另外的13亿人只剩下区区238亿。

九评共产党》一书中揭示出共产政权之下,出现贫富差距根本原因:“中国共产党因为自身生存危机,自上世纪八十年代开始经济改革,把人民财产权利部分归还,也把共产党政权这个庞大而精密的控制机器,捅出了第一个窟窿,这个窟窿,到今天越来越大,发展成为全体共产党官员发疯般为自己聚敛财富。”

巨大的贫富差距导致社会矛盾加剧,群体事件不断,只能加剧危机的到来。中共堂而皇之地发布这一美国人权报告,是想告诉中国人已经生活在幸福之中,这是独裁政府愚弄人民的惯用手法。高税收、低工资、高房价、低社保,中国人付出很多却得到很少,却豢养着庞大的中共官僚阶层,有何幸福可言呢?

而中共每段时间都推出一段蛊惑人心的宣传,从不间断地牵着中国人民的舆论走向,无非是以愚民政策转移人民的视线,让中国人不要了解真相,保持对美国的仇恨和对中共的依赖,随时成为中共的牺牲品和最终的陪葬品。

English Version: http://en.minghui.org/html/articles/2020/8/14/186337.html

The Reality of Communism in China: Poverty, Inequality, and Corruption
Aug. 14, 2020 | By Shi Chuan

(Minghui.org) Some people in Western society were misled by the claim that communism is a system of equality despite its tyrannical ruling. When looking into facts and uncensored statistics, however, one would find it a brewery of poverty, inequality, and corruption.

Below is an analysis using China as an example. I hope it will help people recognize the nature of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and distance themselves from the totalitarian regime and its human rights violations and religious persecution.
The Issue of Poverty in China

China Society for Human Rights Studies recently published a report to promote China as being far superior to the United States which was said to see half of the American families struggling to maintain their basic life. The statement is untrue but could mislead Chinese people once parroted through various CCP-controlled news media.

According to per capita nominal GDP for 2019 released by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, the per capita GPD for the United States was over $65,000 and about $10,000 for China.

Chinese Premier Li Keqiang announced in May that about 600 million Chinese citizens have a monthly income of 1,000 yuan (or $144) or less. A research report published by Beijing Normal University in 2019 supported Li's claim. The report sampled 70,000 people and inferred that 43% of the population (or 600 million) has a monthly income of less than 1,090 yuan. Among them, 220 million have a monthly income of less than 500 yuan (or $72).
The Number Game of Gini Index

The CCP is known to manipulate numbers to support its narratives. After the Tangshan Earthquake in 1976, for example, Chinese authorities first reported a death toll of 655,000, but later lowered it to 240,000. The sudden drop in the number of coupons distributed (which was a necessity at the time to buy fabric or food), on the other hand, indicated a population decline of at least 550,000 people, a figure that was more on par with the initially announced higher death toll.

Another example was the man-made famine in 1959-1961. The CCP never announced the death toll and in fact treated the topic as a taboo for researchers. Frank Dikötter, chair professor of Humanities at the University of Hong Kong, conducted independent studies and concluded the death toll was at least 45 million in his book Mao’s Great Famine.

Similarly, the Gini index, an indicator of income inequality, also remains a mystery in China. In 1978, China reported a Gini index of 0.3, which climbed to 0.4 by 1994. There was no official announcement of the Gini index between 2002 and 2011. In 2012, the National Statistics Bureau (NSB) abruptly reported all numbers between 2002 and 2012, and claimed the index had dropped from 0.479 in 2003 to 0.474 in 2012.

But these numbers received broad skepticism. In a report in The Atlantic in January 2013 titled “What China's Newly Released Inequality Data Really Means,” Xu Xiaonian, a professor of economics and finance at China Europe International Business School, was cited as saying these data were like “a fairy-tale that no one would dare to write.” He was further cited as writing on social media, “A journalist called me and asked me to comment on today's macroeconomic figures. Wouldn't I be sick in my head to comment on such false figures?”

A Gini index of above 0.4 is often considered inequality that could lead to political instability and social conflicts. After this number reached 0.41 in China by 2000, NBS stopped releasing such data. A research team at the University of Michigan analyzed 7 nationwide surveys in China and calculated Gini indices based on them. The results were published in May 2014 on Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) with a title of “Income inequality in today's China.”

Numbers from these 7 surveys ranged from 0.483 to 0.611, with an average at 0.54. Given the information censorship in China, the real number could be much higher. But even 0.54 would put China the highest Gini index among major countries in the world.

“Holding back data have been in the [Chinese] government's interest, an attempt to avoid drawing attention to a reality that an increasing number of Chinese find frustrating,” reported an article on Quartz in April 2014 with a title of “China is hiding how bad income inequality.”
Corruption: When Cash Is Measured in Tons

The real Gini index could be higher because senior officials have large sums of unreported income. Wei Pengyuan, former director of the coal department at the National Energy Administration, was investigated for corruption in May 2014. Since a large amount of cash was found at his residence, local banks provided 16 money counters, among them 4 were damaged onsite because of the heavy use. In the end, the money was determined to be 230 million yuan (or $33 million).

Lai Xiaomin, a business executive and senior economist, was the Party chief and chairperson of the board for China Huarong Asset Management. Among all the fortune he accumulated through corruption and bribery, some of it was kept in his numerous safes. After he was investigated in April 2018, officials found 270 million yuan (or $39 million) of cash in his residence, with a total weight of about 3 tons (or 6,600 pounds).

Besides high officials, offsprings of senior political officials—known as princelings—also accumulated large amounts of assets, which are deposited both inside China and overseas. Deutsche Welle, a German public radio, reported in April 2012 that 2,900 Chinese princelings owned a fortune of about 2 trillion yuan (or $320 billion at that time). They had controlled many industries, especially finance, foreign trade, and real estate. “Among 3,220 Chinese people with fortunes of over 100 million yuan, only 288 are not offspring of high officials,” wrote the report.

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